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CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 82% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 82% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

82% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.

FED explained: a complete guide to the Federal Reserve System

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The Federal Reserve System, or FED for short, is like the conductor of an orchestra, but instead of music, they conduct the flow of money in the global economy. However, many people don't fully understand what it does or how it operates. In this guide, we'll take a deep dive into the FED and provide a comprehensive explanation of its history, structure, policies, and impact on the global economy. Whether you're an aspiring economist or just someone curious about the inner workings of the financial world, this guide is for you.

What is the Fed?

The Federal Reserve System, commonly known as the "Fed," is the central banking system of the United States. It was established on December 23, 1913, with the signing of the Federal Reserve Act by President Woodrow Wilson. It is an independent agency that operates under the authority of the US government but is also responsible for regulating the nation's monetary policy.

It is made up of several key components, including:

  • Board of Governors: The Board of Governors is the main governing body of the Federal Reserve System, located in Washington, D.C. It consists of seven members appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the Senate. The Board of Governors is responsible for setting monetary policy, supervising and regulating banks and other financial institutions, and providing economic research and analysis.
  • 12 Federal Reserve Banks: It also includes 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks, located throughout the United States. Each Reserve Bank serves a specific geographic district and provides financial services to banks and other institutions within its district.
  • Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC): The FOMC is the policy-making arm of the Federal Reserve System. It consists of the seven members of the Board of Governors and five of the 12 Federal Reserve Bank presidents who serve on a rotating basis.
  • Member Banks: National banks and state-chartered banks that choose to join the Federal Reserve System become members and are required to hold reserves at their regional Federal Reserve Bank.

The role and duties of the Fed

Conducting monetary policy
The Fed's primary role is to promote maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. To achieve this goal, it conducts monetary policy by setting the target federal funds rate, which is the interest rate at which banks lend and borrow from each other overnight. It uses a variety of tools, including open market operations, discount rates, and reserve requirements, to influence the federal funds rate and adjust the supply of money in the economy.
Supervising and regulating banks
It supervises and regulates banks and other financial institutions to ensure their safety and soundness and to protect consumers. It also enforces consumer protection laws, such as the Truth in Lending Act and the Fair Credit Reporting Act, and oversees the payment system to ensure it operates smoothly.
Providing financial services
It provides financial services to banks and other institutions, such as processing payments, transferring funds, and issuing currency and coins.
Conducting economic research and analysis
It conducts economic research and analysis to better understand economic conditions and to inform its policy decisions. It also publishes data and reports on economic indicators, such as gross domestic product (GDP), inflation, and unemployment.
Maintaining financial stability
It plays a role in maintaining financial stability by monitoring and addressing systemic risks in the financial system. This includes overseeing the operations of financial market utilities, such as clearinghouses, and providing lender-of-last-resort support to banks and other financial institutions during times of crisis.

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How does the Fed affect the world economy?

  • Global financial markets: Its monetary policy decisions, such as changes in interest rates and quantitative easing programs, can affect financial markets around the world. For example, a decision to raise interest rates may cause investors to shift their investments to U.S. markets, causing a decrease in investment flows to other countries.
  • Exchange rates: Its monetary policy can also affect exchange rates, which can have a significant impact on international trade and investment. For example, if it raises interest rates, the U.S. dollar may appreciate relative to other currencies, making U.S. exports more expensive and imports cheaper.
  • International lending: Its actions can also affect the availability and cost of credit in international markets. For example, a decision to increase the supply of U.S. dollars through quantitative easing may lead to increased lending to foreign entities or a decrease in the cost of borrowing in foreign markets.
  • Economic growth: Its primary goal is to promote maximum employment and stable prices in the U.S. economy, which can also have implications for global economic growth. For example, if it raises interest rates to control inflation, it may lead to decreased demand for goods and services in the U.S., which can also affect demand for exports from other countries.

FED meeting dates - 2023

The Fed’s most recent meeting was on March 21-22, 2023. Future meetings in 2023 will be in May. 2-3; June. 13-14; July. 25-26 and September. 19-20.

You might also be interested in: At least the Fed is half right, it's high time to fix the other half

Date Time UTC
April None
3-May-2023 6:00:00 PM
14-June-2023 6:00:00 PM
26-July-2023 6:00:00 PM
August None
20-September-2023 6:00:00 PM
October None
01-November-2023 6:00:00 PM
13-December-2023 7:00:00 PM

What is the Fed interest rate?

The Fed interest rate usually refers to the federal funds rate, which is the interest rate that banks charge each other for overnight loans of their excess reserves held at the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve sets a target range for the federal funds rate and uses open market operations to influence the actual rate to stay within that range.

As of March 2023, the Fed interest rate stands at 4.75% to 5.00%. It has recently increased the interest rate by 0.25%, marking the ninth time it has raised rates since it began doing so in March of the previous year.

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What you need to know about the Fed interest rates

The Federal Reserve interest rate is set by the Federal Reserve Board's Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) and is one of the most important indicators of the US economy.

Here are some important things you should know about these rates:

  1. The Federal Reserve adjusts the interest rate based on economic indicators, such as inflation and employment data. When the economy is growing too fast, the Fed may increase interest rates to prevent inflation. When the economy is sluggish, it may lower interest rates to stimulate economic activity.
  2. The Federal Reserve uses the interest rate to control the money supply. By increasing the interest rate, the Fed can reduce the amount of money in circulation, which can help to reduce inflation. Conversely, lowering the interest rate can increase the money supply, which can stimulate economic growth.
  3. The Fed's interest rate decision can have a significant impact on other interest rates, such as mortgage rates and credit card rates. When the Fed raises interest rates, other interest rates may also increase, making it more expensive for consumers to borrow money.
  4. The Fed typically raises interest rates gradually over time, and the impact of rate increases may not be felt immediately. It can take several months or even years for the full impact of interest rate changes to be felt throughout the economy.

Instruments commonly affected by FED decisions

The Federal Reserve's decisions, including changes in the interest rate, can have a significant impact on various financial instruments. Here are some instruments that are commonly affected by its decisions:


Changes in the interest rates set by the Fed can impact the prices of bonds, which are fixed-income investments. When it raises interest rates, the value of existing bonds can decrease, as new bonds with higher yields become more attractive to investors.



The stock market can be influenced by the Fed's decisions, as higher interest rates can lead to increased borrowing costs for companies, potentially reducing their profitability. However, some industries, such as financial companies, may benefit from higher interest rates.


Foreign exchange rates

Changes in US interest rates can impact the value of the US dollar relative to other currencies. When US interest rates rise, foreign investors may be more likely to invest in the US, increasing demand for US dollars and potentially strengthening its value relative to other currencies.


Real estate

Interest rates can have a significant impact on the housing market. When interest rates are low, borrowing costs for homebuyers can be more affordable, leading to increased demand for homes. When interest rates rise, borrowing costs can increase, potentially decreasing demand for homes and impacting the real estate market.


Consumer loans

Interest rates set by the Fed can impact the interest rates on consumer loans, such as mortgages, auto loans, and credit cards. When interest rates rise, borrowing costs for consumers can increase, potentially reducing demand for loans and impacting consumer spending.



Changes in the interest rate can have significant effects on financial instruments and the broader economy, making it important for individuals and businesses to understand the Fed's actions and their potential impact. By staying informed about the latest news and analysis, and seeking out expert advice as needed, we can all stay ahead of the curve and make informed decisions about our financial futures

Not investment advice. Past performance does not guarantee or predict future performance.

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